Visitor invited by David Middleton
It's humorous … The writing of this submit has been disturbed by a glimpse of the Inexperienced New Deal in Dallas over the previous 5 days … Extra details about this later.
Dropping Earth: A Latest Historical past is a foul science fiction novel by Nathaniel Wealthy of The New York Instances. It's apparently a developed model of a New York Instances article that he wrote. Final week, RealClearEnergy was linked to an excerpt from this e-book on The Every day Maverick (no matter the kind of fracture).
Right here is an abridged model of the extract:
OUR PLANET HOPE: BOOK EXTRACT
What failure to reverse local weather change may imply
By Nathaniel Wealthy • Could 27, 2019
1979, we knew nearly all the pieces immediately about local weather change – together with methods to cease it, based on the e-book Dropping Earth.
The Every day Maverick
Primarily that is the case:
James Hansen good.IPCC good.Al Gore mega-superheroes. Depraved corporations.Orange man unhealthy.Inexperienced The cultural revolution of the Inexperienced New Deal NOW! World socialism proper now or fries in 12 years !!!
The above just isn’t an inventory of precise citations from the article. It's my informal impression of the article … And I'm beneficiant; this e-book excerpt doesn’t even need to be flippant.
To start with, it’s past the silly …
What failure to counteract local weather change may imply …
It’s not possible to "reverse local weather change". "Local weather change" doesn’t make sense.
If, by means of local weather change, this "eloquent scientific story" (based on Barbara Kiser of Nature) means "international warming," a reversal of the warming we now have skilled since 1978 would contain a return to "L & # 39; ice age is coming "…
Determine 1. Science Information, March 1, 1975. The 70's Local weather Present!
A return to the 70's Local weather Present doesn’t seem to be an excellent thought. If inaccurate serial local weather fashions have been near correction, AGW rescued us from The Ice Age Cometh …
Determine 2. With out warming that might not be defined by pure processes, we’d proceed to bounce across the ice age!
If, by means of local weather change, this "eloquent scientific story" refers to better warming The Earth has identified for the reason that depths of the Little Ice Age, it could be way more catastrophic than any RCP8 nightmare. 5.
From the spring of 1315, the chilly and torrential rains decimated crops and livestock in Europe. Class conflict and political battle have destabilized beforehand affluent nations, as thousands and thousands of individuals starved, paving the best way for the crises of the late Center Ages. Based on some sources, determined Europeans resorted to cannibalism throughout the well-known Nice Famine, which endured till the early 1320s.
The Black Dying ]
This occasion is taken into account an epidemic. bubonic plague, which is transmitted by rats and fleas, the Black Dying ravaged Europe, North Africa and Central Asia within the mid-fourteenth century. It killed about 75 million individuals, together with 30 to 60% of the European inhabitants. Some consultants have linked the epidemic to the meals scarcity of the Little Ice Age, which might have weakened the human immune system whereas permitting rats to flourish.
Iceland was one of many hardest hit areas. The ocean ice, which is now very far north, has unfold round Iceland. In some years, it was tough to carry a ship ashore anyplace anyplace alongside the coast. Cereals have turn out to be not possible to develop and even hay crops have failed. Volcanic eruptions have made life much more tough. Iceland misplaced half of its inhabitants throughout the Little Ice Age.
Tax statistics in Scandinavia present that many farms have been destroyed by glacial ice-making and meltwater currents. Vacationers to Scotland reported a everlasting snow cowl over the Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland at an altitude of about 1,200 meters. Within the Alps, glaciers superior and threatened to turn out to be bulldozed cities. The ice-covered lakes escape periodically, destroying a whole lot of buildings and killing many individuals. In 1930 once more, the French authorities commissioned a report to analyze the specter of glaciers. They may not have predicted that man-made international warming ought to resolve this drawback extra successfully than another committee.
Sources within the historical past of the atmosphere
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was most certainly the coldest climatic interval of the Holocene epoch. In central Greenland, the temperature was about the identical as that noticed on the Bølling-Allerød interstade.
Determine Three. Be aware that in central Greenland, the Little Ice Age was as chilly because the final Pleistocne glacial interstadial, Bølling-Allerød. Older is to the left.
How a lot local weather change do we have to reverse?
Return to the final ice age of the Pleistocene? Again to the interglacial Eemian? Or extra again than that?
Determine four. Excessive latitude SST (° C) following the benthic foram δ18O (Zachos et al., 2001) and HadSST3 (Hadley Heart / UEA CRU through http://www.woodfortrees.org) plotted on the identical scale, tied at 1950. UN D. Be aware: Older is left.
The fashionable rise of ~ 1 ° C for the reason that pre-industrial period doesn’t exceed the noise degree of the quaternary interval … one other improve of 1 ° C just isn’t but increased than that of the noise degree of the interval quaternary.
If we reverse local weather change earlier than the Quaternary, I don’t suppose it could work so effectively both …
Determine 5. Excessive latitude SST (° C) from the benthics foramen δ18O. It's humorous to see that the PETM is commonly cited as a nightmare model of a real-world RCP8.5 … whereas the EECO, hotter, is a climatic optimum. (Zachos et al., 2001). Be aware: Older is on the suitable.
The typical temperature of the Earth's floor is only some levels above the coldest local weather of the Cenozoic period, the Late Pleistocene glacial phases.
Maybe by "reverse local weather change", does Mr. Wealthy merely confer with lowering the extent of atmospheric CO2 as much as an imaginary focus of Goldilocks?
Determine 6a. Cenozoic CO2 (previous to proper) Determine 6b. Cenozoic atmospheric mixing ratio of CO2 and partial strain of seawater. Be aware the large distinction between atmospheric CO2 and pCO2. Be aware additionally that pCO2 was increased earlier than and after PETT and that stomatal knowledge point out that CO2 was about what it’s immediately, aside from a brief peak of about 800 ppmv at 55 , 2 Mya. Discuss established science! Be aware: Older is on the suitable. Tirpati ought to be Tripati.
What precisely is the CO2 focus of Goldilocks?
Determine 7. CO2 per geological interval. The Cambrian by means of the Cretaceous comes from Berner and Kothavala, 2001 (GEOCARB), the Tertiary comes from Pagani, et al. 2006 (cores of deep marine sediments), the Pleistocene comes from Lüthi, et al. 2008 (EPICA C Antarctic ice nucleus), the Anthropocene comes from NOAA-ESRL (Mauna Loa Observatory) and the CO2-related famine comes from Ward et al., 2005.
Maybe he responds to those questions within the e-book? I’ll by no means know … as a result of I’d not even have the archive in a public library not to mention the bought one. So let's transfer on to one thing else …
As lately acknowledged Ken Caldeira, a number one climatologist on the Carnegie Establishment for Science in Stanford, California:
"We’re transferring additional and additional away from the predictive mode of what’s going to occur to attempt to clarify what occurred. "
After all, "we" "transfer increasingly from the prediction mode to what will occur, however moderately to a manner of explaining what has occurred" … That is the results of extra 30 years of failed predictions.
Determine eight. Hansen's fabulously false local weather mannequin of 1988. The pink curve represents the 5 12 months common of GISTEMP. State of affairs C is the place people didn’t uncover fireplace in 2000.
And your predictive expertise don’t enhance.
Determine 9. HadCRUT4 and UAH 6.Zero plots the Christy 2016.
What occurred? The frequent clarification immediately considerations the depredations of the fossil gas business which, in latest a long time, has pledged to play the position of villain with bravado comedian. Between 2000 and 2016, the business spent greater than $ 2 billion, 10 instances greater than spending by environmental teams, to defeat local weather change laws.
I'm sorry … However $ 2 billion over 17 years (<$ 120 million / 12 months) doesn’t even characterize a tiny fraction of what environmental activist teams and bureaucrats are devoting to efforts to destroy prosperity and particular person freedom.
The Pure Sources Protection Council is completely devoted to the destruction of prosperity and particular person freedom in america and is religiously devoted to the AGW fable. Their annual finances ($ 152 million) is greater than the mixed revenues of the American Enterprise Institute ($ 75 million), Cato Institute ($ 37 million), Heartland Institute ($ 5 million) and Aggressive Enterprise Institute ($ eight million).
The federal authorities withdrew $ 2 billion each 60 days to advertise Gorebal Warming's rip-off as lately as 2017.
Determine 10. US Federal Spending on World Warming. GAO
As well as, "the fossil gas business" (within the singular) doesn’t exist, it didn’t trigger that:
Determine 11. Fossil gas industries: "You’re welcome".
The worldwide demand for considerable and inexpensive power is the trigger.
Oil and fuel and coal are two very totally different industries … Each are important to the power dominance, financial prosperity and particular person freedom of america.
If america had endorsed the broadly supported proposal within the late 1980s – a carbon freeze, with a 20% discount by 2005 – the warming may have been maintained until 1.5 levels. A broad worldwide consensus had been reached on a mechanism to realize this: a binding international treaty.
"If america had subscribed to the broadly supported proposal within the late 1980s – a freeze on carbon emissions, with a 20% discount by the 12 months 2005" … we’d have dedicated suicide on the financial plan.
It has been stated that regulating carbon dioxide emissions would make america the cleanest third world nation on the planet. And whoever controls carbon dioxide emissions will management the world.
Dr. Roy Spencer
And that may have had a Dean Wormer impact on the climate.
Determine 12. "Guarantees regarding the Parisian local weather will solely scale back temperatures by Zero.05 ° C in 2100" (Bjorn Lomborg)
At Zero.05 ° C, this isn’t …
In 1979, we knew nearly all the pieces we perceive immediately about local weather change …
In 1979, we knew Jack Schist …
The impact of protecting the ambiance on the Earth's floor has been in comparison with that of a greenhouse. The short-wave daylight passes as simply by means of the glass of the greenhouse as by means of the ambiance. As a result of the glass is opaque to long-wave radiation from the within heat of the greenhouse, it prevents the escape of power.
As a planet, the Earth doesn’t warmth up or cool considerably on common as a result of it loses as a lot radiant power because it positive factors.
Kolenkow, Robert J., Reid A. Bryson, Douglas B. Carter, Keith Julian R., Robert A. Muller, Theodore Oberlander, Robert P. Sharp, and Gordon Wolman. Bodily geography immediately: portrait of a planet. Del Mar, Calif .: CRM Books, . p. 64.
PREDICTING THE FUTURE. We will now attempt to determine if we are actually in an interglacial section, with different glaciers to observe, or if the world is lastly out of the Cenozoic ice age. Based on Milankovitch's principle, radiation fluctuations of the kind proven in Figs. 16-18 should proceed and, subsequently, the longer term ice phases will proceed. Based on the idea simply described, so long as the north and south poles keep their current thermally insulated areas, the polar latitudes will stay freezing; and because the Arctic Ocean continues to oscillate between ice-free and ice-covered situations, glacial and interglacial climates will proceed.
Lastly, regardless of the principle we subscribe to, so long as we don’t see any basic change within the late Cenozoic local weather development and the presence of ice on Greenland and Antarctica point out that no change has occurred, we will anticipate the fluctuations of the final million years to proceed.
Donn, William L. Meteorology. 4th version. McGraw-Hill 1975. pp 463-464
The concept proposed by British physicist John Tyndall to change the carbon dioxide content material of the ambiance may very well be a significant factor in local weather change relationship from 1861.
Sadly, we cannot precisely estimate modifications previously CO2 content material of the ambiance or oceans, and there’s no strong quantitative foundation for estimating the quantity of CO2 within the ambiance or oceans. magnitude of the lower within the carbon dioxide content material required to set off glaciation. As well as, the complete idea of atmospheric greenhouse impact is controversial as a result of the ocean-atmosphere equalization charge is unsure .
Dott, Robert H. and Roger L. Batten. Evolution of the Earth. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Second Version, 1976. p. 441.
In 1982, we knew what we all know immediately … The fashions have been fallacious …
Determine 13. Exxon 1982.
Whether it is actually essential to quickly scale back carbon emissions …
This might solely be achieved by means of the industries "ravaging fossil fuels" and the unleashing of the nuclear power business.
Determine 14 Gasoline kicks @ $$, the wind breaks down.
Actual Clear Power
If carbon emissions have been actually an existential risk, nearly as severe because the financial risk of the Inexperienced New Deal cultural revolution, we should discover a option to economically seize and sequester the utmost quantity of power. carbon. dioxide. And there is just one manner to try this. Seize carbon emissions from coal and pure fuel vegetation and use them to enhance restoration initiatives in previous oil fields.
October 31, 2017
Petra Nova is one in all two international carbon seize and sequestration vegetation
The Petra Nova Producing Station close by coal-fired energy plant Houston, Texas, is one in all solely two energy vegetation on the planet to seize and retailer carbon (CCS), and it’s the solely one in all its form in america. The Boundary Dam energy plant, with a capability of 110 megawatts (MW) positioned in Saskatchewan, Canada, close to the border with North Dakota, is the opposite electrical energy service facility utilizing a CCS system.
Petra Nova's sluggish combustion CO2 seize system was commissioned in January 2017. The 240 megawatt (MW) carbon seize system added Unit eight (654 MW capability) of WA's current pulverized coal plant receives roughly 37% of Unit eight emissions which can be diverted by a flue fuel stream. The Petra Nova carbon seize system is designed to seize about 90% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from the flue fuel stream, or about 33% of the full emissions of the unit eight. The method of Publish-combustion consumes a number of power and requires devoted unit to pure fuel to satisfy the power wants of carbon seize course of.
The carbon dioxide captured by the Petra Nova system is then used for enhanced oil restoration in close by oil fields. Enhanced oil restoration includes injecting water, chemical substances or gases (reminiscent of carbon dioxide) into oil tanks to extend the oil's capacity to movement. in a effectively.
By comparability, Kemper was designed to seize roughly 65% of the plant's CO2 utilizing a pre-combustion system. Capital prices related to the Kemper undertaking have been initially estimated at $ 2.four billion, or about $ four,100 per kilowatt (kW), however price overruns resulted in building prices in extra of $ 7.5 billion ( almost $ 13,000 / kW). Petra Nova's CCS modernization prices would have been $ 1 billion, or $ four,200 / kW, and the undertaking was accomplished on time and on finances.
Principal contributor: Kenneth Dubin
Determine 15a. The initiation of CO2 injection has very quickly elevated oil manufacturing within the WEST RANCH unit (41-A & 98-A CONS.) From about 100 BOPD to Three- 4000 BOPD. The interval from August to September was hit laborious by Hurricane Harvey. Determine 15b. The output is comparatively unchanged. The best demand happens from Could to September, when temperatures are highest. Could-September 2016: Avg. Temperature 82 ° F, complete energy 7,802,898 MWh. Could-September 2017 Avg. Temperature 80 ° F, complete manufacturing 7,655,403 MWh. The nominal capability is about four,000 MW and carbon seize solely 240 MW; so this shouldn’t be a shock.
The US Division of Power estimates that 85 billion barrels of oil may very well be recovered from previous oil fields because of the CO2 RAP. Whereas, for many fields, the CO2 RAO just isn’t worthwhile with oil costs under 85 USD / bar, but when a drastic discount of CO2 was actually pressing, some taxpayer cash spent To subsidize the storage and use of carbon seize would have a a lot greater affect on carbon emissions than any taxpayers' cash spent within the wind and the photo voltaic stalemate.
My Overview of the Inexperienced New Deal Cultural Revolution
For 3 years, I shuttled between Dallas and Houston. My spouse, I and our 11 canine stay in Dallas and I’ve been working in Houston since March 2016. On Sunday, we went out for lunch at a close-by Tex-Mex restaurant earlier than heading again to Houston. We knew that there have been thunderstorms within the forecasts, however we didn’t anticipate that …
A violent wind and particles wreak havoc in Dallas
by Diana Zoga
Revealed on June 9, 2019
The robust winds of Sunday after -Midi have blown home windows in downtown Dallas.
The Metropolis Emergency Administration Workplace acknowledged that there have been no reviews of accidents associated to damaged home windows or felled bushes.
Repairing site visitors lights could be one of many prime priorities of the town, officers stated at a press convention Sunday evening. Repairs will first be made to fully ineffective lights, then to people who flash pink.
The storm hit whereas we have been consuming and the present was rapidly turned off. The winds have been so robust that it seemed like a hurricane by means of the home windows of the restaurant. We needed to wait till the wind choked earlier than we may get dwelling (lower than 1 / 4 of a distance). The automobile was heartbreaking. There have been bushes all over the place. We have been frightened about our "furry infants". After we returned dwelling, we discovered solely 10 of 11 kids. Our 6 month previous Corgi pet was gone … however we discovered it hidden below a bathroom. A number of tiles have been blown on our roof, one in all them hit the hood of my jeep and all of the patio contents have been blown onto the pool, together with a glass tray (as a substitute of break on the patio). A big piece of metallic artwork was projected in opposition to the wall, by means of the pool and received caught in a tree, between two home windows. Miraculously, no home windows have been damaged. Aside from a traumatized Corgi pet, the household was not injured.
The facility outage was the worst second of the storm.
Oncor expects the overwhelming majority of consumers to have entry to electrical energy Wednesday evening
Dallas states that residents with out electrical energy who have to A refuge from the warmth can discover a short-term respite in libraries and recreation facilities
Revealed June 9, 2019
About 16,000 Oncor clients, most within the county of Dallas, are nonetheless with out electrical energy Wednesday in North Texas. Electrical energy has been restored in additional than 330,000 properties and companies. An Oncor spokesman stated that they anticipated the overwhelming majority of energy to be restored by tonight, however that this might lengthen to some extent. Till tomorrow in probably the most affected areas.
"For the second, the kind of restoration that we now have to carry out is probably the most advanced varieties of breakdowns, as a result of we now have to rebuild a number of these distribution gear. So, as a substitute of simply exhibiting up and fixing the issue instantly, we have to take away the bushes, take away the broken polling stations, dig holes for the polling stations, reintroduce the ends in the polling stations, after which restore the traces. " stated Kerry. Dunn of Oncor.
At its peak, a staggering 350,000 clients misplaced energy Sunday at Metroplex – Dallas County has the biggest variety of outages, based on Oncor Electrical. Oncor had warned that the outage would final a number of days.
"This storm was actually distinctive as a result of we had seen harm much like what we’d have seen in a tropical storm or twister. However as a substitute of a small space, we see a really giant a part of Dallas County badly broken, "stated Jen Myers, spokesman and meteorologist at Oncor.
Crews from 11 states work day and evening.
I wish to thank Alabama Energy. We have been with out electrical energy from Sunday to Wednesday evening. On Sunday evening, Oncor's crews restored energy in elements of our neighborhood. We didn’t see anybody till Tuesday afternoon, when an Alabama Energy car "explored" our neighborhood. Yesterday, Alabama Energy crews have been within the aisle, cleansing up particles from energy traces.
4 days dedicated to the solar and batteries for lighting and electrical energy appear to be a reasonably good overview of the Inexperienced New Deal cultural revolution. As well as, it compelled me to take an unplanned trip week, in quest of oil and fuel, to chop tree branches with a battery powered electrical chain noticed. We nonetheless shouldn’t have Web service (the cellphone line caught fireplace whereas repairing energy traces and AT & T doesn’t perceive why this may very well be an issue). I take advantage of my good cellphone as a scorching spot … so I nonetheless cannot discover the oil and fuel from my dwelling: the connection is just too sluggish to remotely entry my workstation. I cannot think about a greater demonstration of the cultural revolution of the Inexperienced New Deal. On prime of that, I wrote most of this text on Sunday morning and scheduled its publication Monday morning, pondering that I’d end Sunday evening in Houston. No electrical energy, no oil and fuel exploration and a silent AGW skeptic … We should always name the Dallas wind storm, the nice storm Alexandria …
Luckily, the months of June in Dallas have been exceptionally cool for the June season … And oddly sufficient, it looks like the storm was attributable to a sudden chill …
Dallas-Fort Value confronted an ideal storm on Sunday.
"We had all the pieces in place – a really unstable ambiance, warmth, humidity – then, in fact, we had the chilly entrance, which rapidly cooled us down," stated Patricia Sanchez, meteorologist on the Nationwide Climate Service
Dallas-Fort Value needed to face an ideal storm this Sunday.
"We had all the pieces in place – a really unstable ambiance, warmth, humidity – then, in fact, we had the chilly entrance that cooled us down rapidly, "stated Patricia Sanchez, a meteorologist on the Nationwide Climate Service.
The temperature at Based on the meteorological service, the DFW worldwide airport reached 90 levels earlier than midday and remained there hovering.
Then, when the storm crossed the area accompanied by a chilly entrance, the temperature dropped to 70 inches. lower than an hour. When dry air from the chilly entrance collided with scorching and humid air already current within the space, the humidity charge dropped by 90% to 13 hours. at 58% at 15 o'clock it’s this combination of two plenty of air that may set off violent storms.
The climate service had been contemplating the potential for heavy storms on Sunday morning, when Dallas-Fort Value had been warned of an elevated threat of maximum climate.
The excellent news of the storm is that the chilly temperatures carried by the chilly entrance have made situations extra bearable for tens of 1000’s of individuals with out electrical energy.
Temperatures anticipated Grant Johnston, a meteorologist at KXAS-TV (NBC5), stated that to remain under regular within the 80s no less than till the center of the week. Dallas-Fort Value also needs to keep dry all week.
Dallas Morning Information
We don’t "lose the Earth". It’s really bodily not possible for us to lose the Earth. D'autre half, dans le futur, la Terre nous perdra probablement.
Avertissement: bombes F! «La planète ne va nulle half. Nous sommes! Nous partons. Emballez vos [schist]les amis, nous partons. Nous ne laisserons pas beaucoup de traces non plus, dieu merci pour cela. Peut-être un peu de styromousse, peut-être un peu de styromousse. Planet sera là et nous serons partis depuis longtemps. Juste une autre mutation ratée. Juste une autre erreur biologique, un cul de sac évolutif. La planète va nous secouer comme un mauvais cas de puces, une nuisance en floor. Vous voulez savoir remark va la planète? Demandez à ces gens à Pompéi, qui ont été gelés dans la place de la cendre volcanique. Remark va la planète? Vous voulez savoir si la planète va bien, demandez aux habitants de Mexico ou d’Arménie, ou à une centaine d’autres lieux ensevelis sous des milliers de tonnes de gravats du tremblement de terre s’ils se sentent comme une menace pour la planète cette semaine. Qu'en est-il des habitants de Kilauea, Hawaii, qui ont construit leur maison juste à côté d'un volcan actif, puis se demandent pourquoi ils ont de la lave dans le salon? La planète restera ici très longtemps après notre départ et elle se guérira elle-même, elle se nettoiera elle-même parce que c’est ce qu’elle fait. C’est un système à correction automatique. L’air et l’eau vont se rétablir, la terre sera renouvelée et s’il est vrai que le plastique n’est pas dégradable, la planète intégrera simplement le plastique dans un nouveau paradigme: la Terre plus plastique. La terre ne partage pas nos préjugés envers le plastique. Le plastique est sorti de la terre. La Terre voit probablement le plastique comme un autre de ses enfants. Peut-être la seule raison pour laquelle la terre nous permet d’être engendrée d’elle: elle voulait du plastique pour elle-même. Je ne savais pas remark le faire, avait besoin de nous. Pourrait être la réponse à notre query philosophique séculaire, "Pourquoi sommes-nous ici?" "Plastique, @ trous". "
Références (sera développé ultérieurement)
Alley, R.B. 2000. «Intervalle froid du Dryas le plus jeune vu du centre du Groenland». Quaternary Science Critiques 19: 213-226.
Alley, R.B .. 2004. «Données de la température et de l'accumulation de glace dans le noyau de glace GISP2».
PAGES IGBP / Série mondiale de données n ° 2004-Zero13 du Centre de données mondiale de paléoclimatologie. Programme de paléoclimatologie NOAA / NGDC, Boulder CO, USA.
Berner, R.A. et Z. Kothavala, 2001. «GEOCARB III: un modèle révisé de CO2 atmosphérique au cours du temps phanérozoïque». American Journal of Science, v.301, p.182-204. Février 2001.
Pagani, M., J.C. Zachos, Ok.H. Freeman, B. Tipple et S. Bohaty. 2005. «Déclin marqué des concentrations de dioxyde de carbone atmosphérique au cours du paléogène». Science, Vol. 309, pp. 600-603, 22 juillet 2005.
Pearson, P. N. et Palmer, M. R.: Concentrations de dioxyde de carbone atmosphérique au cours des 60 derniers thousands and thousands d'années, Nature, 406, 695–699, https: //doi.org/10.1038/35021000, 2000.
Royer, et al., 2001. Preuve paléobotanique des niveaux proches de nos jours de CO2 atmosphérique pendant une partie du tertiaire. Science 22 juin 2001: 2310-2313. DOI: 10.112
«L'âge de glace arrive?» Science Information, Société pour la science et le public, 1er mars 1975, www.sciencenews.org/sn-magazine/march-1-1975.
Tripati, A.Ok., C.D. Roberts et R.A. Aigle. 2009. «Couplage de la stabilité du CO2 et de la calotte glaciaire au cours des principales transitions climatiques des 20 derniers thousands and thousands d'années». Science, Vol. 326, pp. 1394 1397, four décembre 2009. DOI: 10.1126 / science.1178296
Ward, JK, Harris, JM, Cerling, TE, Wiedenhoeft, A., Lott, MJ, Dearing, M.-D., Coltrain, JB et Ehleringer, JR, 2005. «La famine du carbone dans les arbres glaciaires récupérés de la Fosses de goudron de La Brea, Californie du Sud ». Actes de l'Académie nationale des sciences, USA102: 690-694.
Zachos, J. C., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E., Thomas et Ok. Billups, «Tendances, rythmes et aberrations du climat mondial de 65 à nos jours». Science 292, 686 à 693 (2001).
Chargement en cours …